Researchers from a national lab have developed a device that uses micro-fabricated bioreactors to produce proteins. Unlike other such systems, the device does not require cells, which eliminates the need to maintain a living system. Such a system could be used on-demand as a point-of-care therapeutic even in remote or disaster locations. Cell-free reactions are possible based on a permeable nanoporous membrane and serpentine bioreactor, which is produced using a combination of electron-beam lithography and material deposition processes. The serpentine channels allow for material exchange between parallel reactor and feeder channels, which provide control with respect to metabolites, energy, and species that inhibit production of the desired protein.