Researchers from Shanghai University in China have developed three layer vascular grafts using micro-imprinting and electro-spinning techniques. Vascular grafts are blood vessel bypass. By fabricating a three layer composite for these structures rather than the typical two layer composite, the researchers have increased their mechanical strength and promotes new cell growth. Artificial biological scaffolds need to mimic the natural vasculature of the tissue as much as possible. For blood vessels, this has been achieved through electrospinning chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol into nanofibers. The surface area of the biodegradable nanofibers act as host for new cells to attach and grown. To add rigidity, the structure has a microimprinted middle layer consisting of a biodegradable polymer called poly-p-dioxanone. The research team previously developed bone scaffolds, and as a next step will test the structure’s efficacy with live vascular cells in an animal model.